The Leslie Papers transcribed

I’m currently reading my way through the Leslie Family papers at the John Oxley Library. The Leslie brothers – Patrick, Walter and George – were early settlers on the Darling Downs, with squatting runs at Canning Downs and later Goomburra. Patrick Leslie also built Newstead House in Brisbane. I’m interested in them because they are the nephews of  Walter Davidson.

The Leslie papers are a mixture of transcripts and original handwritten letters, all now photocopied and bound in 5 fat volumes. In total there are about 500 letters. They are a well known collection and have been well-thumbed by many historians over the years. Because the bound volumes consist of photocopies, I don’t need to use white gloves. This is a great advantage. I hate white gloves, though I realize they are necessary when handling fragile materials – but more to the point, my iPad doesn’t like white gloves and goes into a sulk if I try to swipe or type or scan while wearing them.

Over at Adventures in Biography, MST recently wrote about the joy that comes from finding transcriptions. It is a generous gift when someone in the past has gone through the document before and left the fruits of their labour for the benefit of later researchers. Who wouldn’t prefer to read this:


rather than this:

An example of a crossed letter from the Leslie Papers, State Library of Queensland

But I find I’m becoming a bit obsessed by these Leslie transcriptions, and the typists who made them long ago.

The Leslie papers came to Queensland in the 1940s from the Warthill estate in Aberdeenshire, which is still in the hands of Leslie relatives. (Trivial fact: Rose Leslie, who played the chamber maid Gwen in Downton Abbey, and Ygritte in Game of Thrones, grew up at Warthill) The Leslies of Warthill, bless them, never threw anything away, so the Leslie letters that reached the State Library of Queensland include – as far as we know – pretty nearly all the letters that reached the family from their sons, from the time they left for Australia, Patrick in 1834, Walter and George in 1838.

When they reached Sydney the young men stayed with Hannibal Macarthur and his family at Vineyard, Parramatta. Both Patrick and George later married two of Hannibal’s daughters, Kate and Emmeline Macarthur, so there are also letters from them as well as other members of the Macarthur family at Vineyard.

By the time the letters arrived in Queensland, Patrick Leslie already had a heroic, if undeserved*, status as ‘the first white man’ on the Darling Downs. Henry Stuart Russell used Patrick’s diary as one of the sources for his book The Genesis of Queensland (1888), but that diary had since disappeared. So when the Leslie letters reached Queensland, after years of negotiation and an inconvenient World War, they caused quite a stir. They were a valuable new resource – but they were also extremely difficult to read. So somebody decided to transcribe them.

In 1957, Kenelm Waller wrote an honours thesis based on these letters: The letters of the Leslie brothers, 1834-1854. The Waller thesis contains long quotes from the letters, typed in a similar layout to the transcriptions in the Oxley library. Both thesis and letters were typed on an old-fashioned manual typewriter, with the distinctive fuzziness that comes from making several carbon copies at once. Created in a time before computers, before electric typewriters, before liquid paper, it was hard and exacting work.

So was Waller responsible for these transcriptions? It seems likely, though whether he was the typist is more difficult to say for sure. Typing, in those pre-computer days, was a more gendered activity than it is today, so perhaps it was a loving mother, wife or sister who did the typing.

It’s all guesswork, I’m afraid, but in fact I think there were at least 2 typists involved. Even the most perfect transcription has idiosyncrasies, as the typist makes decisions: Do you scrupulously capitalize letters mid-sentence because the letter-writer uses an H or an S that looks like a capital letter? If the writer has scrawled a word that might be misspelt, are you picky or do you give them the benefit of the doubt? How do you deal with words that are totally illegible, or with tears in the paper? One of the Leslie typists uses ellipses – … –  the other uses square brackets – [blank] . Most intriguingly, Ellipse-Typist had more trouble with the handwriting, so some of his/her transcripts are full of mystery dots.

If Waller was the brain, if not the fingers, behind this huge transcription project, this helps to explain how the decision was made about which letters to transcribe. Nearly all the letters from the 3 Leslie brothers are transcribed, as are some from their wives. Even quite peripheral letters that relate to their activities on the Darling Downs are copied, so there is a long sequence dealing with the shipment of cattle from Scotland.

Other letter-writers have been ignored, most but not all of them women. Hannibal Macarthur’s wife and daughters kept up a regular correspondence with the Warthill family, especially Patrick’s mother Jane and his sister Mary Ann. These letters are delightful, full of details about Patrick and his friend dancing Scottish reels after dinner, and Mary Ann sewing doll’s clothes for the youngest Macarthur daughter. They also deal with more serious matters, such as the ‘Absyss’ on each of Kate Leslie’s breasts following the birth of her baby – which were opened and drained. Yikes.

To be fair, the letter that describes this event has been transcribed, but in general, nobody in the 1950s thought these domestic details were important. I’ve written about a similar instance from the 1950s here. So these letters have remained un-copied and therefore relatively inaccessible ever since. I am by no means the first person to look at these letters, but I do wonder how many people have overlooked them in favour of the ones that were easier to read.

Sixty years ago, someone decided that women’s words, and the domestic detail of women’s lives, didn’t matter. It’s a shame if as a result, every hasty researcher who chooses the transcripts over the scrawls is bound by a perspective that is now 60 years out of date.

* There were runaway convicts on the Darling Downs before him, and Patrick brought a servant with him anyway.

17 responses to “The Leslie Papers transcribed

  1. Robert Hogg

    Hi Marion,
    I made extensive use of Patrick’s letters in my thesis/book. Was there a fellow called Campbell on the Severn River when the Leslies arrived? Or is that technically not on the Downs?

  2. Babette Smith

    Hi Marion
    I hope I get a chance to read through some of the letters one day. The two brothers interest me, particularly their relationship with their convict workers. In Australia’s Birthstain used a quote from Leslie written later in life about what a good group of men they were. If you come across any mention of one Henry Alphen/Alpen/Alphan, I would be most grateful to hear of it. He worked for Patrick Leslie from c.1840/42 cf Australia’s Birthstain again. He was one of those urban jewel thieves who made a successful switch to being a drover.

    • Re Alphen: I think you will find he moved to Sydney, opened a pub, and there he met Jackie Howe’s father, who was an acrobat in a circus. He was encouraged by Alphen to move to Killarney, where he married one of the Leslie employees.

  3. Jill Barker

    Thank you. Your obsession (if that’s what it is) with the transcribers and the implications of access to information is such a lovely piece of analysis that speaks so clearly to my research interests.

  4. Thanks for the link, and for a fascinating post. There are so many veils between us and the past, aren’t there?

  5. Dianne Byrne

    Marion, thank you for your fascinating and very informative piece on the Leslie Papers held in the John Oxley collection. It is very timely as the library purchased four more letters principally connected with Kate Leslie at an auction in England on 15th June. You may like to see them when they arrive.
    Dianne Byrne

  6. The (limited) scope of my father’s thesis is stated in its title, ‘The Letters of the Leslie Brothers in Australia’. He was a 1950s Arts Honours student, not a 2018 MBA outsourcer: of course he typed his thesis himself! (And what a thrill it must have been to handle these primary sources, I’m guessing without the modern wisdom of white gloves…)
    I’ll ask him about the origin of the transcripts, and differences in notation therein.
    I’d also like it noted for the record that 66% of his biographised subjects are women.
    He is not who you imply he might be.

    Jane Waller

    • Thank you for getting in touch. I’m sorry if you feel that I belittled your father’s efforts. I didn’t mean to do so. It’s a staggeringly impressive piece of work as an honours thesis, and as I said, has been used, again and again, by later researchers.

      I think it’s quite natural that in the 1950s, he was more interested in the Leslie brothers and pastoral expansion than in the letters of woman – social history and its preoccupations didn’t become a topic of much investigation until the 1970s.

      Please tell him his work is still valued -and I would love to know whether there were indeed 2separate typists!

  7. Jane Waller

    I’ve learnt that Professor Gordon Greenwood suggested that my father look into the Leslie Letters.
    My father says that the variation in typing styles could be those of Misses O’Keefe and Dolan, as they typed their way through the letters, as he opened them. He observed that they were as thrilled as he, as the lives of the brothers and their families and friends, in Scotland and NSW unfolded before them.
    So you have it right: 2 typists of the transcripts, and both female.

  8. lorrainestacker

    Hi Marion
    I am interested in the Leslie family when they were at Dunheved and whether they made any comments/observations about the property or area. My interest is with local history. I wrote ‘Penrith: the makings of a City’ (2014) for the Council. I also manage the Library’s local history Research Room. Any information or guidance would be most appreciated. Lorraine Stacker, Penrith City Library (

    • Hi Lorraine, sorry to take so long to get back to you. As you probably know, Patrick and Kate Leslie rented Dunheved and stayed there for quite a while. Some of Pat’s letters home come from there, but he’s not a very descriptive correspondent. However Annie McArthur, Kate’s sister, also wrote, and there’s one she wrote to Jane Leslie (Pat’s mother) which is full of lovely details – Kate playing the piano, etc. I’ll send it to you.

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